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 George Frost Kennan

George Frost Kennan (February 16, 1904 - March 17, 2005) was an American advisor, diplomat, political scientist, and historian, best known as "the father of containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of the Cold War. He later wrote standard histories of the relations between Russia and the Western powers.

In the late 1940s, his writings inspired the Truman Doctrine and the U.S. foreign policy of "containing" the Soviet Union, thrusting him into a lifelong role as a leading authority on the Cold War. His "Long Telegram" from Moscow in 1946, and the subsequent 1947 article "The Sources of Soviet Conduct" argued that the Soviet regime was inherently expansionist and that its influence had to be "contained" in areas of vital strategic importance to the United States. These texts quickly emerged as foundational texts of the Cold War, expressing the Truman administration\'s new anti-Soviet Union policy. Kennan also played a leading role in the development of definitive Cold War programs and institutions, most notably the Marshall Plan.

Shortly after Kennan\'s doctrines had been enshrined as official U.S. policy, he began to criticize the policies that he had seemingly helped launch. By mid-1948, he was convinced that the situation in Western Europe had improved to the point where negotiations could be initiated with Moscow. The suggestion did not resonate within the Truman administration, and Kennan\'s influence was increasingly marginalized用articularly after Dean Acheson was appointed Secretary of State in 1949. As U.S. Cold War strategy assumed a more aggressive and militaristic tone, Kennan bemoaned what he called a misinterpretation of his thinking.

In 1950, Kennan left the Department of State, except for two brief ambassadorial stints in Moscow and Yugoslavia, and became a leading realist critic of U.S. foreign policy. He continued to be a leading thinker in international affairs as a faculty member of the Institute for Advanced Study from 1956 until his death at age 101 in March 2005.

George F. Kennan
George F. Kennan
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updated Mon. October 24, 2022

The Marshall Plan — formally, the European Recovery Program — was the first major policy component of U.S. diplomat George Kennan's new strategy of “containing” the Soviet Union, which he outlined in an important Foreign Affairs article in 1947. The aid tendered, as a percentage of U.S. output, wouldテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
And it was another diplomat, George F. Kennan, deputy chief of mission in Moscow, whose experience and insights proved decisive in shaping half a century of U.S. foreign policy. Kennan's approach was summarized first in a so-called “long telegram” in 1946, and later published in slightly revised form inテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...

Before his meeting with Khrushchev, Kennedy prepared intensively by talking to a number of American experts on the Soviet Union, such as George F. Kennan and Llewellyn E. Thompson. However, the President was unprepared in the sense that he had never been in a meeting like that one before.
Written in 1946, George Kennan's 'Long Telegram' from Moscow, where he was serving as a US diplomat, became the West's founding text for handling the Soviet Union, and his analysis of the Kremlin's methods and motivations remains remarkably relevant today. In the 5,500-word document, sent toテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
The West is similarly conflicted, recognizing the necessity of countering and preventing Russia's growing influence, but having neither the resources nor the initiative to do anything about it. Former U.S. ambassador to the Soviet Union George Kennan noted that through the expansion of NATO “[the Unitedテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
This is a textbook case of what George Kennan called political war: “the employment of all the means at a nation's command, short of war, to achieve its national objectives. Such operations are both overt and covert. They range from such overt actions as political alliances, economic measures . . . andテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...

The programme was devised by Dean Acheson, George Kennan, the Mississippi cotton trader turned government economist Will Clayton, and US secretary of state George C Marshall, who gave it his name. On June 5, 1947, in a speech at Harvard University, Marshall, the former chief of the army, vividlyテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
In this article, we will focus on the fourth scenario out of four possible ones, which is in continuation to Scenario One, Scenario Two and Scenario Three published earlier. Our main goal, however, is to use the scenario tools in order to “describe” a hypothetically possible development of the Russia-Ukraineテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
When George Kennan wrote his famous “Long Telegram”, the 1946 dispatch to US secretary of state James Byrnes that laid the foundation of America's containment policy on the Soviet Union, he mentioned Josef Stalin just three times. This was despite the fact that, at the time, the Soviet leader ran hisテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
GEORGE KENNAN WAS BORN ON THIS DAY IN 1904. The U.S. diplomat coined the phrase "containment policy.” He served as a diplomat during WWII and was briefly arrested by the Nazis. After the war, Kennan wrote an article for Foreign Affairs magazine that had a significant influence on America'sテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...

The American diplomat and historian George F. Kennan is most remembered for authoring the “Long Telegram” from Moscow in February 1946, which examined the historical and ideological bases of Soviet foreign policy. It is one of the seminal documents of the early Cold War years, and it helped shapeテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
And that means looking to its founder, George F. Kennan. In the late 1940s, as U.S.-Soviet confrontation heated up, Kennan — who served as deputy to the U.S. ambassador in Moscow, and later as ambassador himself — offered a comprehensive plan for managing that rivalry in two famous papers: a 1946テδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
The enduring irony of George F. Kennan's life was just how much the architect of America's Cold War “containment” strategy—aimed at stopping Soviet expansionism—loved Russia. Kennan arguably played a larger role in shaping the U.S.'s view of a major foreign power, and thus our relations with thatテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
“I've wanted to spend time there since I had read George Kennan's description of it in his memoirs,” she says, referring to the Cold War-era American diplomat and historian. Epstein plans to devote her scholarship to discovering the hidden history behind the “State Secrets Privilege,” a controversial government privilege thatテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
What is most useful is to go back to George Kennan for a lesson. Kennan was a leading diplomat and historian who served in the US embassy in Moscow during the 1940s and 1950s, and briefly as ambassador to the Soviet Union under President Truman. During his tenure he developed the concept ofテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...
As a concept, containment dates back to the beginning of the Cold War and US diplomat George Kennan's infamous Long Telegram which first articulated the outlines of a policy that could be used to peacefully contain Soviet efforts to globalise their ideology and influence. American policymakers haveテδε「ツツ堙δづつ...


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