The Buner Valley lies on the Peshawar valley border of the North-West Frontier Province of modern day Pakistan. It is a small mountain valley, dotted with villages and divided into seven sub-divisions. The Mora Hills and the Ilam range divide it from the Swat Valley, the Sinawar range from Yusafzai, the Guru mountains from the Chamla valley, and the Duma range from the Puran Valley. Until the year 2000 it was a part of Malakand Division - until this division was abolished.
In April 2009, the Taliban seized control of Buner, after a brief battle with local residents, who were unsupported by the Pakistani army. Strict rules are reportedly being enforced, including the elimination of video stores, bans on cutting beards, and the prevention of women from appearing in many public places. On 29 April the government responded to the Taliban by sending the army to the region and dropping parachuters by helicopter.