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updated Mon. January 29, 2024

Michael Rowan is an author and political consultant who has advised presidential candidates throughout Latin America, including Governor Manuel Rosales in Venezuela, President Jaime Paz Zamora of Bolivia and President Oscar Arias of Costa Rica. In the U.S., he has advised winning candidates in 26 states. He has ...

The previous unity effort, the Democratic Coordinator, fell apart after the failure of a 2004 recall referendum targeting then-President Hugo Chavez, Maduro's predecessor and mentor. The same fate may lie ahead for the MUD after the October gubernatorial contests. Opinion polls ahead of the voting had ...
Chavez also overwhelmingly won the 2004 recall referendum on his presidency with 58 percent of the vote. His victory was somewhat undermined when the NGO Sumate, a polling organisation, released an exit poll placing Chavez 18 percentage points behind. Sumate had played a key role in lobbying for ...
When a 2004 recall referendum against President Chavez hinted at the possibility of his losing power, the National Assembly voted to revise the structure of the Supreme Tribunal of Justice, expanding the number of seats from 20 to 32 and stacking the court with loyalists who would protect the Chavista ...
The 2004 recall referendum process took eight months after the required signatures were successfully obtained. The recall vote in 2004 was held only four days before the deadline to trigger a new election had Chavez lost. He won the recall vote in a landslide. Venezuelan elections in the “Chavista” era ...
In the lead up to the 2004 recall referendum against Maduro's predecessor, Hugo Chavez, the state by state percentage count had not been a requirement, and the opposition only managed to secure around 2 million signatures. However, the state by state count is not the only move to anger the opposition.


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       2004 recall referendum

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       2004 recall referendum